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The purposes of the study
The findings of this study may contribute to more improvement of the patient safety in King Khalid University Hospital. Due to the lack of studies in this field, the recommendations of this study may be a stimulus for researchers to focus their future researches on this vital area.
Literature review Theoretical framework Cooper used Bandura’s Model of Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura, 1978) to explain safety culture. The model contains three elements including person (internal psychological factors), and behavior and situation (external observable factors) (Figure 1).The Model of Reciprocal Determinism (RD) explains the interactions between the three elements and how they influence one another. The model also demonstrates that people are neither deterministically controlled by their environments nor entirely self-determining. Bandura proposed that behavior and personality are shaped by the interaction between cognitive factors and environmental factors. Developed the Reciprocal Safety Culture Model [RSCM]. Cooper noted there are three major elements of safety culture consistent with Bandura’s RD Model (Bandura, 1978). Person represents the psychological components aligned with intrinsic cultural elements of values, beliefs and assumptions. Behaviors and situations align with extrinsic elements of norms, rituals, and symbols that make up the safety behaviors of workers and management. The model (figure 2) is multi layered with person, job and organization being represented by three main measurable dimensions of safety climate (a substitute measure for safety culture), safety behavior, and safety management system (Cooper, 2000). Advantages of Bandura’s model (1978) reside in the fact that organizations can readily monitor, mea- sure and analyze psychological, behavioral and situational factors. For example, factors such as attitudes and perceptions are represented as the internal psychological factors in an organization and can be accessed via safety culture questionnaires. Ongoing safety-related behavior can be accessed via observation checklists developed as a part of behavior safety initiatives. Organizational factors can be accessed via safe- ty management system audits (Cooper, 2000).